Parliament of the Republic of South Africa

For South Africa evolution from apartheid rule to democracy, a provisional constitution was discussed between governments of associations involved in the freedom struggle, signified political parties and other interest groups. After the first democratic elections on 27 April 1994, members of the National Assembly and Senate, met as the Constitutional Assembly to mark a new Constitution. In 1996, two years of public discussion and ample deliberation, the new Constitution was lastly adopted.

The President, currently Jacob Zuma is the head of state as well as the national executive. He exercises decision-making authority together with members of the Cabinet, specifically the Deputy President and Ministers. The executive advances policy, such as organising and introducing regulation which it give to Parliament for endorsement. It then implements that rule by running the government.


The national legislature consists of the National Assembly and National Council of Provinces, members are voted for by the people of South Africa. Individually each House has distinctive functions and controls, as set by the Constitution. The National Assembly is accountable for selecting the President, passing laws, guaranteeing that the executive perform their task correctly.
The National Council of Provinces is involved in the process of law-making and delivers a forum for discussion on matters affecting all provinces. Its foremost focus is guaranteeing that provincial interests are taken into account.

The judiciary consists of courts, such as the Supreme Court of Appeal, Constitutional Court, High Courts, Magistrates’ Courts and other courts recognized or documented through an Act of Parliament. The head of the Constitutional Court is also the Chief Justice of South Africa. The Constitution states that the courts must be independent and act impartially. Structures of state such as Parliament and the executive are to contribute and defend the courts in order to safeguard their freedom, impartiality, availability and efficiency.

The Bill of Rights covers socio economic rights. In South Africa, where the struggle for freedom was about refining peoples, these human rights are extremely important. It places a responsibility on the government to address the problems experience by citizens especially when it comes to water, housing as well as education and health services.

Rights include the environment being sheltered for future generations, the right to information, and to fair organisational action. The citizens of South Africa are even assured the right to an effectual government.

A significant feature of the South African Constitution is its sets up of numerous self-governing bodies to upkeep and maintain democracy. Unceremoniously these bodies are regularly referred to as the “Chapter 9 Institutions”, due to the significance of the Constitution, including Human Rights, Gender Equality, the Public Protector and finally also the Electoral Commission. Though the National Assembly may not obstruct the liberation of institutions, they are responsible for the National Assembly and have to account on actions and routine of all their purposes to the Assembly at least once a year.

Starting with education South Africa could rebuild, but currently faction fighting in schools disrupts learning, school supplies are short and at some school books are delivered past the middle of the school semester.